Q3: What Stands In Our Way?

People are complex and riddled with paradoxes. We respond to well-planned programmes in unpredictable ways and give answers to surveys that contradict our real-world behaviour.

The principal challenge of this phase is that people designing immunization programmes are usually not the same people that use them. We are asked to design solutions to problems we have not confronted personally. There is a gap between our experience and the experience of the people using the programmes, called an empathy gap.

Each user research method works to close that gap. The more we can empathize with the lives and lived environments of the people we intend to serve, the more effective our programmes will be. Activities grounded in dialogue and listening give us divergent perspectives on problems and new inspirations for solutions. This is a methodical approach to investigating, understanding and diagnosing problems built on that premise.

This phase will yield a set of insights that help to clarify what might be preventing users from fully utilizing immunization services. What are the factors that shape how people do and do not engage with our programmes? These insights will allow us to create and test solutions.

Q3 | 3a

Explore the User’s Environment

Gain a detailed understanding of the challenges preventing better immunization outcomes. Better understand user’s conditions and experience to ensure you address the right problems.

  • Develop a Research Plan Plan how you will go in the field and talk to people. Choose which activities, including both observations (what we see) and interviews (what others say), to use. Build a discussion guide to help guide interviews.
  • Conduct Field Research Observe intended users within the environments that shape their day-to-day lives and behaviours. Interview intended users and allow them to speak about specific events and experiences.
  • Record Field Research After each day of field research, quickly synthesize and record the information you’ve gathered. Document what is seen, heard, felt, and said. Record as much as possible — even the seemingly mundane.

Tool #9

Research Methods


These tools share activities, including both observations (what we see) and interviews (what others say), to plan your field research. They are by no means exhaustive, but rather emblematic of the type of intimate, human-centered activities that will help you to learn about a group of users.

Tool #10

Developing a Research Plan:

Stories in Action


After each day of field research, quickly synthesize and record the information you have gathered.

Q3 | 3b

Interpret Collected Stories

Share information from the field through user stories. Analyze themes within user stories to hypothesize why this is happening. Develop diagnoses to explain what the team saw and heard, returning to the field to gather more information as needed.

  • Share User Stories Share information from the field to help everyone internalize what you observed. Use creative presentation methods that help close the empathy gap.
  • Identify Important Information in Stories Analyze key findings to hypothesize why this is happening. Call-out patterns, surprises, and commonalities. Cluster common themes and choose the most important.
  • Diagnose the Underlying Causes Ask yourself why this is happening, drawing from research and educated guesses. Which can we validate? Articulate final diagnosis succinctly to help teams make sense of what was gathered in the field.

Tool #11

Share User Stories


This tool gives sample activities to empathetically transcribe what you’ve seen and heard in the field to your team members.

Tool #12

Identify Important Information in Stories


This tool shares a process to isolate the most important pieces of information from what your team found during field research.

Tool #13

Diagnose The Underlying Causes


This tool shares a process for your refining the themes from ‘Identify Important Information in Stories’ into final diagnoses.

Q3 | 3c

Propose Opportunities for Design

Transform our diagnoses into actionable tools. Personas help teams understand the prioritized user-group’s thoughts, feelings, actions. Prompts translate the technical diagnosis into a simple question that points to solutions.

  • Create Persona Profiles Identify all users and describe them in more detail, including the service recipient and service provider.
  • Draw the Relationship Map To help analyze and make sense of the diagnoses, map the relationships between your personas, their needs, and the people responsible.
  • Articulate Creative Prompts For each diagnosis, articulate multiple “How might we?” questions that will prompt teams to think about creative solutions.

Tool #14

Persona Profile


Create a persona profile for your prioritized user group and each additional person who has a role in your identified challenge.

Tool #15

Relationship Map


This tool organises the different pieces of the system to show how they connect to and communicate with one another.

Tool #16

Creative Prompts


Use this tool to create prompts that respond to your challenges and guide the generation of creative solutions.